Biblically Responsible Finance from 1976 to the Present
In the wake of Billy Graham’s evangelical crusades from the 1940s to the first decade of the 21st Century, the portion of the United States population identifying as “evangelical Christian” steadily grew. More institutions and resources were developed, from education (Liberty University, now the largest Christian college in America, was founded by Jerry Falwell in 1971) to parachurch ministries and church-related businesses like publishing.
The same was true in the financial sector.
In 1976, Larry Burkett founded Christian Financial Concepts, a ministry aimed at teaching people Biblical concepts in order to manage their finances as part of a larger life plan. In 2000, CFC merged with Crown Ministries, founded by Howard Dayton in 1985. The Knoxville, Tenn. ministry, like that of Christian financial talk show host Dave Ramsey, encourages people to get out of debt and live according to strict budgets.1
In 1989, Tom Strobhar, a pro-life investment advisor in Dayton, Ohio, began buying a couple of shares in 25 corporations so he could attend stockholders meetings and lobby management against donating to Planned Parenthood, investing in pornography or promoting immoral lifestyles. “Folks like Timothy Plan have made [abortion] an issue so it has worked,” Mr. Strobhar said in an interview, noting that at least 340 companies that formerly gave to Planned Parenthood have ceased doing so.2 Mr. Strobhar authored the first shareholder resolutions against child pornography, religious bigotry, fetal tissue research, abortifacient drugs and domestic partner benefits.3
MARK KSENIAK / Asbury Park Press Illustration / May 1, 1994
Biblically Responsible Investing began in earnest in 1992 when pro-life activist and financial services veteran Art Ally sought to assist churches in providing Biblically sound retirement resources for pastors.
Two years later, in April 1994, Mr. Ally founded the Timothy Plan mutual fund family, which as of July 2017 had $1 billion assets under management.
As the first non-denominational biblically screened mutual fund, Wall Street did not know where to classify Timothy Plan. It was lumped into the ambiguous category of “Faith-Based Investing.” Under that category, a person can find Catholic, Lutheran, Mennonite, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic and Seventh Day Adventists funds, as well as funds of other faiths, such as Islamic funds. Timothy Plan, however, was decidedly different. With a strict, zero-tolerance, application of biblical screens, it was created for any investor who strives to honor the Judeo-Christian principles expressed in the Bible. In short, Timothy Plan started a movement.
For the past twenty-five years the movement has been known by many names. “Values-Based Investing,” Morally Responsible Investing,” “Faith-Based Investing” and “Biblically-Based Investing,” all became synonymous with Timothy Plan in the financial world. No matter the description, the purpose was consistent – to give Christians an alternative to traditional investing that compromises one’s religious beliefs. Eventually, this consistency gave rise to a singular term – Biblically Responsible Investing.
Since Timothy Plan’s launch, God has blessed the conviction and efforts of Mr. Ally and his team. “Biblically Responsible Investing,” says Mr. Ally, “is ALL that we do. We do not compromise being Biblically Responsible.” While Biblically Responsible Investing (BRI) may be a subset of within Faith-Based Investing (“FBI”), Mr. Ally and BRI investors are firm in their conviction that BRI is something expressly different. For that reason, this article will henceforth refer to BRI as a subset of FBI, and a methodology specifically for Christians investors who desire to be Biblical stewards of the assets God has given them.
In 1998, Mr. Ally announced the formation of the National Association of Christian Financial Consultants (NACFC), a group of investment professionals committed to investment and financial planning disciplines centered upon biblical principles. Mr. Ally was elected president and served from 1998–2001. In 2005, the Association created the Christian Financial Consultant and Advisor (CFCA®) certification training program.4
Also in 2005, the Timothy Plan absorbed The Noah Fund, which was founded in 1996 as a mutual fund based on Judeo-Christian principles and which invested only in “what we believe is a moral, spiritual and ethical standard, but also with an emphasis on low risk, high growth stocks.”5 The Fund tithed 10 percent of management earnings to “missions and the needs of the poor.”6
In 1997, Larry Burkett brought together 16 friends and fellow professionals with a commitment to Biblically sound financial advice to form the Christian Financial Planning Institute (CFPI). In 2003, these men and women created a new organization for outreach to the Christian financial professional community. The Christian Financial Professionals Network (CFPN) under the leadership of Ron Blue began to grow, and in 2007 was re-named Kingdom Advisors.7
In 2012, the Christian Investment Forum (CIF), was formed8 in Charlotte, N.C. as a “Kingdom-focused investment association committed to educating advisors and investors by providing opportunities to bring about change – in the hearts, homes, cities, nation, and world that we serve.”9 The CIF has 11 member firms – advisor solutions 360, Beacon Wealth, Camelot Mutual Fund, Creative Financial Design Investments, Epiphany Funds, Eventide, Guidestone, In His Steps (IHS) Foundation, Praxis Mutual Funds, Sage Stone Wealth Management and the Timothy Plan.10 “We view the concept of biblically responsible investing as investing that seeks to please and glorify God as a vital act of worship,” the CIF Facebook page explains.11
The Rise of Christian Broker/Dealers
To meet the growing need of investors who wanted to square their money management with their commitment to living out Christian life principles, more Christian financial advisors began offering services.
Glenn A. Repple started his career in the financial services industry in 1972 and eventually became a regional vice president of E. F. Hutton Financial Services. After 10 years of overseeing corporate training and experience he left the firm to start Florida-based G.A. Repple & Company as an Independent Financial Planner operating under the principles of Biblically Responsible Investing. Mr. Repple is a Certified Teacher of Biblical Entrepreneurship and has trained more than 600 business leaders who have likewise spread the BRI principles into 23 different countries.12
Daniel L. Hardt, of Dan Hardt Financial Services13 in Louisville, Ky., who is associated with G.A. Repple, is another pioneer provider of Christian, BRI-based financial services. “In the late 1990s, I began to offer screened investments to my clients when they said something that told me they would be interested. It was another arrow in my quiver, a tool. In the early 2000s, I became under conviction and I moved my own money.”14
In 2004, Dan was walking around the track at the activities center of a local church with a friend who was also a client and they discussed ways to describe the screening of companies for violations of basic values. The term “morally-based investing” had been around since abolitionist days, and “faith-based investing was another popular term.
“But everybody’s morals are different,” Mr. Hardt said. “And people have faith in all sorts of things. Faith in companies, for instance. So we thought we needed a new term.”
Out of that conversation came the phrase Biblically Responsible Investing. “The idea is that the foundation is the Bible,” Mr. Hardt said. “It should come back to God’s Word. What is Godly and what is ungodly?”
As president at the time of the National Association of Christian Financial Consultants, Mr. Hardt began using the phrase Biblically Responsible Investing in public speaking, and it caught on. “It helped that I had a platform,” he said.15
Dan is currently involved in the leadership of Kingdom Advisors and was awarded the prestigious Larry Burkett Award at the 2015 Kingdom Advisors Conference. He is also president of Faith and Finances, a local non-profit ministry in Louisville, Kentucky dedicated to helping Christians apply the principles of their faith to their financial planning.
Mark Minnella is another major figure in the BRI movement. He began his financial services practice in 1987. Fifteen years later, he founded Integrity Investors, L.L.C., a St. Louis-based company “established to evaluate and design portfolios for discerning individuals, specializing in portfolio strategies that allow individuals to invest with integrity, aligning their investments with their individual values, principles, and Biblical Beliefs.”16
“Back in early ’90s, as I was working out what it meant to be a follower of Christ, God instilled in me an understanding that my whole life was his and I was to be His ambassador,” Mr. Minnella wrote in his new book, ‘The Wall Street Awakening.’17
“If I call myself a Christian and I represent myself as a financial Advisor, then I must acknowledge I am Christian Financial Advisor and as such must be true to both parts. 100% Christian and 100% financial advisor. The good news here was that there is no conflict. Investing with Biblical integrity allowed me a solution that didn’t force me, or my clients, to deny the financial needs of the physical, temporal world for the spiritual, but embraced a greater reality. The reality of God that includes both. God’s reality that first borne us into this physical being and then again into the spiritual. The all-encompassing reality of everything. No conflict, just alignment.”
A co-founder of the National Association of Christian Financial Consultants, Inc. Mark designed the first faith-based professional designation program, Christian Financial Consultant and Advisor (CFCA). Mark served on the Board of Directors for Timothy Plan Mutual Funds, the first mutual fund family to screen for Biblical values. He has hosted the “More than Money” radio show for more than 15 years.
In Kokomo, Indiana, Mick L. Owens, who began his career in financial services in 1969, founded the Creative Financial Centre® with a network of associates “committed to serving clients in the Christ-like manner by assisting them in development of stewardship in their lives, believing that ‘It profits a man nothing to gain the whole world and lose his soul.’”18 As Mark Minnella writes in his new book, “Mick developed and made biblical foundations the anchor of the financial planning systems at CFD, the brokerage and financial planning service firm he founded.”
Creative Financial Design Investments is a national group of financial management consultants that are “the outgrowth of a singular financial organization founded in 1969.”19 The company, a member of the Christian Investment Forum, the National Association of Christian Financial Consultants and Kingdom Advisors, is “devoted to bringing Advisers and their clients top quality comprehensive Investment Management and Financial Planning Services.”20
Beacon Wealth began in 1979 when Rick Layman founded Beacon Wealth Consultants. “Not long after that, I met two godly older men in our profession who both challenged me to consider the moral implications of what companies we invest in and profit from as believers,” Mr. Layman states on the website.21 “I was shocked to learn that more than half of the companies in the S&P 500 are involved in the abortion industry, pornography and promoting anti-family lifestyles. That is something I had never before stopped to consider.” The firm now advises clients in Biblically Responsible Investing in Florida, Indiana, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, Virginia and West Virginia.22
Camelot Portfolios was founded by Darren Munn, CFA, who began with Munn Wealth Management (MWM) in 1998. In 2008, he added Camelot Portfolios and now directs it along with MWM, Camelot Funds and Camelot Advisors.23 Deploying a screening process provided by the BRI Institute, “we screen out investments whose primary business activities could be deemed antithetical or offensive to Christ followers.” Camelot’s three funds screen for abortion, gaming, financial usury, pornography and tobacco.
Sage Stone Wealth Management in La Jolla, California was founded by Mary Naber King, who served as a Senior Vice President – Investments and Wealth Management Advisor at Merrill Lynch in Beverly Hills. Mrs. King, who has been Sage Stone’s majority owner since 2010,24 is known in the BRI world as the author of “Catholic Investing: The Financial Effect of Screens,” in the Journal of Investing in 2001, and the article “Christ’s Returns” in Christianity Today also in 2001. Sage Stone screens for companies “that take advantage of the suffering of others, including those involved in alcohol, tobacco, gambling, weapons, pornography, pollution, abortion and bioethics issues.”25
Sage Stone “is an independent SEC registered investment advisory firm of Harvard Economics graduates utilizing investment discipline based in academic research, and specializing in ethical and socially responsible investing.”26
The aforementioned Tom Strobhar operates Tom Strobhar Financial in Dayton, Ohio, and is a firm supporter of BRI. Founder of the Corporate Morality Action Center,27 he says that no one has to invest in companies that promote wrongdoing because “there are thousands of other investment choices and it takes the Timothy Plan and others to sort them out. I’m very thankful that Art Ally started it and inspired so many to do so.”28
The Rise in Biblically Responsible Investing Mutual Funds
A subset of the Socially Responsible Investing movement, Biblically Responsible Investing offers many ways in which investors can be assured that their money is not being used to generate profits and dividends through unsavory activities. Below are thumbnail sketches of the most prominent BRI firms.
Timothy Plan – Founded in 1994 by Arthur Ally, president and owner of Covenant Financial Management, the Timothy Plan, managed by Timothy Partners, Ltd., was the first “pro-life/pro-family mutual fund.” The Timothy Plan now manages 13 mutual funds, of which the Israel Common Values Fund and the Defensive Strategies Fund are the latest additions.
“Our commitment, first to our Lord, is that we will not invest a single penny into any company that violates our screens,” the Plan’s website says. A list of companies and how they fare under the screens can be found at the Know Your Investments page on the Timothy Plan website.29 The Timothy Plan directs some of its earnings to support a dozen different ministries.30
MMA Praxis Funds – Founded in 1994 by Mennonite Mutual Aid, the Funds are managed by Everence Financial, “a Christian-based, member-owned financial services organization that offers banking, insurance, investments, asset management, financial planning and other financial services with community benefits and stewardship education.”31
Aimed at denominations with Anabaptist roots including Mennonite, Brethren and Amish church groups,32 the funds screen out companies for “abortion, adult entertainment, alcohol, firearms, gambling, nuclear power, predatory lending, tobacco, and weapons production and support systems.”33 The latter category is based on the Mennonites’ pacifism. As they explain on their website, “We use two types of screens, one tilts our portfolios toward positive social impact and the other ensures that environmental, social and governance data is integrated in all of our funds.”
Thrivent Financial – Founded in Wisconsin in 1902, the Aid Association for Lutherans (AAL) began by offering insurance to Lutheran families. In 1917, Lutheran Brotherhood (LB) was founded in Minnesota as a mutual benefit society to reduce individual risk. In 2001, the two firms combined to form Thrivent Financial For Lutherans,34 the largest Protestant financial firm with more than 40 options, including sector funds.35
Ave Maria Catholic Fund – Founded in 2001, Ave Maria managers use a “proprietary moral screening process” developed by its Catholic Advisory Board. That board includes former Notre Dame football coach Lou Holtz, Princeton University Prof. Robert George, presidential economic advisor and CNBC talk show host Lawrence Kudlow and Domino’s Pizza founder Thomas Monaghan.36 The largest Catholic mutual fund family in the U.S., Ave Maria has five funds “that enable investors to align financial goals with moral beliefs by screening out “companies that promote or support activities contrary to the core moral teachings of the Catholic Church.”37 The Fund places “equal emphasis on investment performance and moral criteria in selecting securities; serve[s] institutional and individual investors, and is advised by Schwartz Investment Counsel, Inc., a registered investment adviser established in 1980.”
LKCM Aquinas Catholic Equity Value Fund – Founded in 1997, the Fund uses the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Socially Responsible Investment Guidelines38 drafted in 2003 when screening companies.39 USCCB investment policies cover: protecting human life; promoting human dignity; reducing arms production; pursuing economic justice; protecting the environment, and encouraging corporate responsibility.40
Luther King capital management serves as investment adviser to the Aquinas Fund. Founded in 1979 as an investment advisory firm, LKCM “provides investment management services to religious organizations, pension and profit sharing plans, endowments, foundations, investment companies, trusts, estates and high net-worth individuals.”41 In addition to screening companies based on Catholic values, the fund has “proactive dialogue with those companies whose practices conflict with the guidelines, and potential exclusion of those companies that are unwilling to alter their practices over a reasonable period of time.”42
Catholic Financial Services Corp – (1995-2012)43 This Milwaukee-based firm was an arm of the Catholic Knights, one of the oldest fraternal benefit societies in America, which merged with several other Catholic fraternal groups. Its original purpose was to aid widows and orphans of Civil War. A sister organization, Catholic Financial Life, still operates and provides life insurance, annuities, financial planning and scholarships.44
Church Capital Fund (formerly Capstone Church Capital Fund) – Founded in 2005, the Fund is a non-diversified, closed-end management investment company45 that “invests at least 80% of net assets in church mortgage bonds and church mortgage loans. Church mortgage bonds are corporate debt securities issued by non-profit organizations that have a stated Christian mission, including local churches, denominations and associations, educational institutions, para-church and other Christian mission-related organizations for purposes including construction, purchase or refinancing of existing real property.”46
A related organization, Capstone Legacy Foundation, “will not authorize the distribution of charitable funds to advance atheism, humanism, homosexual lifestyles, Marxism, anti-Americanism, abortion, violence, witchcraft, or any other activity that the Executive Leadership and/or Board of Directors might at any time deem to be inappropriate, in conflict with the Statement of Faith.”
Crossmark Global Investments – Founded in 1987 as Capstone, the financial services firm is headquartered in Houston, Texas. In 1996, Capstone unveiled its first values-screened client portfolio, and in 1998, its first values-screened family of Funds called Social Ethics and Religious Values Funds. In 2004, Capstone created the Steward Mutual Fund series of values-screened funds. In 2008, Capstone launched the Steward Global Equity Income Fund, “an actively managed dividend strategy that includes values screens.”47 In 2017, Capstone became Crossmark Global Investments. In February 2018, Capstone received its fourth back-to-back Lipper Fund Award for the Crossmark Steward Global Equity Income Fund Institutional Class (SGISX) as best Global Income Fund over 5 years.
Screening categories include environmental, social, government, impact, faith and socially responsible parameters.48
GuideStone Funds – Founded in 1918 as GuideStone Financial Resources, the firm offered financial assistance to retired ministers and widows in need in the Southern Baptist Convention. In 2001, GuideStone registered its first mutual funds. In 2012, GuideStone became the first Christian-screened fund family to win Lipper’s Best Overall Small Fund Group in the U.S. In 2014, GuideStone went public as the nation’s largest Christian-screened mutual fund family and was offered to “individuals, institutions and financial advisors, like you, to invest in funds that align with your Christian values.”49
GuideStone’s website states that the firm “exists to serve those who serve the Lord with the integrity of our hearts and the skillfulness of our hands. And because of this, we are driven by more than just the bottom line.”50 Guidestone Funds has 23 funds, five of which have more than $1 billion in assets.51 Each fund’s prospectus explains that, “The Fund and the Select Funds may not invest in any company that is publicly recognized, as determined by GuideStone Financial Resources of the Southern Baptist Convention (“GuideStone Financial Resources”), as being in the alcohol, tobacco, gambling, pornography or abortion industries.”52
Epiphany Funds – This Catholic-oriented fund in Broadview Heights, Ohio, originated in 2007, when Sam Saladino, co-founder of Arlington, Texas-based Trinity Fiduciary Partners, LLC, “brought together friends and clients with a commitment to faith and social responsibility.”53 Saladino’s great uncle, Bishop John Cassata, was the first bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Fort Worth. The Funds were launched on the first business day following the Feast of the Epiphany, which commemorates the visit of the Magi to the baby Jesus. “Saladino developed the FFV (Faith and Family Values) Scorecard to screen investments to protect the dignity of human life, support and protect employees and their families, and to reasonably safeguard the environment. The FFV Scorecard screening is consistent with the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) Socially Responsible Investment Guidelines…. Epiphany Funds offers two mutual funds: Epiphany FFV Fund and Epiphany FFV Strategic Income Fund.54
Eventide Funds – A Boston-based fund founded in 2008 to service “faith-based and socially responsible investing,” Eventide “strives to honor God and serve its clients by investing in companies that create compelling value for the global common good.”55 Eventide is the Advisor to the Eventide Gilead Fund, the Eventide Healthcare & Life Sciences Fund, and the Eventide Multi-Asset Income Fund, and manages more than $2.1 billion in net assets.”56
The Rise in Biblically Responsible Separately Managed Accounts (SMA)
An SMA is a portfolio of assets under management by a professional investment firm. “One or more portfolio managers are responsible for day-to-day investment decisions, supported by a team of analysts, operations and administrative staff. SMAs differ from pooled vehicles like mutual funds in that each portfolio is unique to a single account (hence the name). In other words, if you set up a separate account with Money Manager X, then Manager X has the discretion to make decisions for this account that may be different from decisions made for other accounts.”57
Stewardship Asset Management – In 2006, wealth manager Jeff Rogers founded Stewardship Asset Management, LLC, the first multi-manager, Biblically responsible separate account asset allocation platform. SAM launched its first portfolios in 2008.
Stewardship Asset Management uses a proprietary process to vet potential brokers. “All asset managers undergo a stringent analysis to ensure their individual trading philosophies will not be undermined by the addition of our screening overlays acquired through Biblically Responsible Investing Institute (BRII).58
SAM “currently provides 13 risk adjusted separate account portfolios to meet the needs of most investors seeking to match their values with their investments.”59 SAM chooses companies that “operate according to Judeo/Christian principles; promote marriage & family values; operate with high ethics & integrity; have stewardship of God’s creation as a core value, and are good corporate citizens.”60
Stewardship Partners Investment Counsel – Incorporated in 2000 by former Templeton global portfolio manager and analyst Howard “Rusty” Leonard, Stewardship Partners began managing money from a Christian worldview perspective for clients during the first quarter of 2001.61 While still at Templeton, Mr. Leonard and his wife Carol developed Wall Watchers, a ministry designed to help Christians be better stewards of their giving.
Below are categories that Stewardship Partners identifies as disqualifying companies for inclusion in portfolios:
Abortion; life-destroying or distorting scientific research; human rights issues such as religious persecution, terrorism and political oppression; greed-based marketing techniques; discrimination and unjust labor practices; any abuses of the poor, children and/or the elderly; alcohol, gambling, and tobacco; pornography; homosexuality (those companies deemed to be the most active supporters); entertainment that seeks to destroy biblically-based attitudes; efforts to promote lifestyles the Bible indicates are sinful.”62
Stewardship Partners favors companies that “clearly embrace: honesty, compassion, diligence, prudence and creativity; support for quality products at fair prices and constructive stakeholder relations; support for a sustainable and healthy environment; support for charitable giving, and support for the Jewish people and the state of Israel.”
Stewardship Partners currently offers 13 separately managed account investment strategies (portfolios).
Biblically Responsible Exchange-Traded Funds (ETFs)
An exchange-traded fund is a marketable security that tracks an index, a commodity, bonds or a basket of assets like an index fund. “Unlike mutual funds, an ETF trades like a common stock on a stock exchange. ETFs experience price changes throughout the day as they are bought and sold.”63
FaithShares Christian Values Fund – Founded in 2009 after the stock market had plummeted, this Christian stock index fund based in Oklahoma was closed in August 2011.64 The closing came on the heels of a shutdown of four other FaithShares funds aimed at Catholics, Baptists, Lutherans and Methodists.65
“Partly it was a problem with a lack of marketing,” FaithShares CEO Garrett Stevens told On Wall Street. “We didn’t get out there as aggressively as we should have.” Also, “We got approved in 2009 and people just weren’t buying stocks then.”
He explained that some Christian investors are quick to demand that a company that offends be dropped. “That’s something a mutual fund can do fairly easily but is much more difficult to execute with an ETF,” according to On Wall Street.
One example: “Our Methodist ETF included Fed-Ex,” recalled Stevens, “and one of the churches that was investing in the fund called and said, ‘We can’t have Fed-Ex in the fund.’ I asked why not, and they said Fed-Ex was sponsoring a stadium in Washington called the Redskins Stadium and that it was a derogatory term. But you can’t just take Fed-Ex out of the index like that.”66
James Biblically Responsible Investment ETF – Founded in December 2017, this Christian-oriented ETF is an outgrowth of Alpha, Ohio-based James Investment Research Inc., a 40-year investment management firm. The JBRI ETF uses the eVALUEator Biblically Responsible Index (BIBLX) as a benchmark for its investing parameters.67 “BIBLX was created to screen stocks within the S-Network US Equity Large/Mid-Cap 1000 Index and, using eight different criteria, filter out any objectionable stocks from a biblical perspective.”68
Inspire ETF – Launched in February 2017, this California-based index has four portfolios, including Inspire Global Hope ETF (BLES), Inspire Small/Mid Cap Impact ETF, Inspire 100 ETF, and Inspire Corporate Bond Impact ETF (IBD). Each ETF is managed according to biblically responsible investing (BRI) standards seeking to create meaningful impact in the world and helping investors align their investments to support biblical values.69
Each investment has a unique set of guidelines and standards. Some may lean more religiously conservative than others. Investors need to take the time to decide which funds fit their needs both financially and Biblically. By talking with a financial advisor, you can get help in your selection process. Advisors who subscribe to eVALUEator can run reports to show you exactly what you own now or are looking to own in the future.
A Growing Responsibility to Do the Right Thing.
There are literally thousands of ways to invest money. Most people do not have the time or expertise to sort out all the variables, which is why trusted financial advisors are so important.
You don’t have to be a Christian to want to invest your money in companies that make the world a better – not worse – place. But Christians and Jewish people have the added insight through the Scriptures that all of our money belongs to God, not just the amount we tithe. So it’s not unreasonable to take responsibility for how our money is used in the marketplace, including investing.
“Investors have overall peace that Timothy Plan is going to steward your money wisely,” says Dan Celia, CEO and president of Financial Issues Stewardship Ministries and host of “Financial Issues with Dan Celia,” online and syndicated to more than 640 stations in 17 countries. “You’re no longer living in anxiousness.”70
Therefore, whether you eat
or drink, or whatever you do,
do all to the glory of God.
—1 Corinthians 10:31
1 “Christ-Centered Stewardship in a Consumer-Driven Culture: An Interview about Money and Giving,” Eternal Perspective Ministries, July 5, 2017, at: www.epm.org/blog/2017/Jul/5/christ-centered-stewardship.
4 John Wesley, “The Use of Money,” Sermon 50, John Wesley Sermons, the United Methodist Church, 1872 (The text for John Wesley’s sermons originally came from the Christian Classics Ethereal Library) at: www.umcmission.org/Find-Resources/John-Wesley-Sermons/Sermon-50-The-Use-of-Money.
YOUR CHOICES COUNT: THE CASE FOR BIBLICALLY RESPONSIBLE INVESTING
Article 1 – A Brief History of Socially Responsible Investing
Article 2 – God’s Financial Advice
Article 3 – Biblically Responsible Finance from 1976 to the Present
Article 4 – Moral Investing – A Growing Field
Article 5 – BRI Historical Returns: Comparable–or Better
Article 6 – Impacting the Kingdom.
A writer for Timothy Partners, Ltd. He is a regular weekly columnist for The Washington Times and Townhall.com and is frequently published by AmericanThinker.com, DailyCaller.com, OneNewsNow.com, and others. His latest book is “A Strong Constitution: What Would America Look Like If We Followed the Law” (D. James Kennedy Ministries, 2018).